I had a conversation about alignments yesterday, and in particular the problem of “monster” races, and how such-and-such race is “always chaotic evil.” I agreed that this was a problem, that things would be different in my games, that it shouldn’t be reasonable that a Lawful Good Paladin slaughters an entire village of sentient (if ugly) creatures without a twinge of guilt.
Now, in my system of alignment, “evil” isn’t evil, per se. It could be argued that none of the traditional labels are particularly good fitsBut then we actually started talking about specific races, what the differences are between goblins, hobgoblins, and orc; what their cultures were like. I started saying things like, “goblins are scavengers; they’re frenetic and lazy and they take things rather than build them.” “Hobgoblins are militaristic and expansionist, more like an army than a society; they constantly seek to expand and subjugate other nations.” “Orcs are a brutal, tribal people who function on a ‘might makes right’ basis.” So even if “evil” just means “willing to actively hurt others to achieve your goals,” aren’t all of these — goblins, hobgoblins, and orcs — simply evil creatures? What would a good goblin look like?
As with my concept of alignment generally, I think the answer is a complicated one full of nuance. I think that these societies that I’ve outlined are evil, and I think that being in that environment will tend individual members towards a matching alignment — after all, my notion of alignment is essentially short hand for characters’ values, and people derive at least some of their values from their society. But just like I can envision a Lawful Good villain doing terrible things because “it’s for the best,” I can see a Good goblin who’s no less inclined to go raid a neighboring settlement. In a way, both come down to rationalization, and if either one things too hard on it they might find themselves conflicted, wracked with guilt, or even choosing to change their alignment. An Evil goblin raids a neighbor because he can, because he wants what they have, and he doesn’t care if (or possibly looks forward to) others get hurt in the process. A Good goblin raids a neighbor because he has too, because they have things that his community needs, and he would rather (or possibly acts to ensure) nobody gets hurt in the process. Both of them are raiding their neighbors and potentially having violent confrontations, but they have different reasons and different attitudes.
In the end, the point is that societies have an identity and alignment that is composed of but also more than the identity and alignment of their individual members. Could there be a whole tribe of Lawful Good goblins who respect tradition and honor and don’t like hurting others? Sure, but they’ll probably still raid their neighbors, because they’re frenetic and lazy.